Endoscope Package
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy -OGDS

What is OGDS?
An endoscope as used in the field of gastroenterology (the medical study of the stomach and intestines) is a thin, flexibletube that uses a lens or miniature camera to view various areas of the gastrointestinal tract. When the procedure is limitedto the examination of the inside of the gastrointestinal tract's upper portion, it is called upper endoscopy oresphagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). With the endoscope, the esophagus (swallowing tube), stomach, and duodenum(first portion of the small intestine) can be easily examined, and abnormalities frequently treated. Patients are usuallysedated during the exam.

Purpose

OGDS is performed to evaluate or treat symptoms relating to the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as:
  • upper abdominal or chest pain
  • nausea or vomiting
  • difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • bleeding from the upper intestinal tract
  • anemia (low blood count). EGD can be used to treat certain conditions, such as an area of narrowing or bleeding inthe upper gastrointestinal tract

Upper endoscopy is more accurate than x rays for detecting inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. It is used to diagnose earlycancer and can frequently determine whether a growth is benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Biopsies (small tissue samples) of inflamed or "suspicious" areas can be obtained and examined by a pathologist. Cellscrapings can also be taken by the introduction of a small brush; this helps in the diagnosis 
of cancer or infections.

When treating conditions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, small instruments are passed through the endoscope that canstretch narrowed areas (strictures), or remove swallowed objects (such as coins or pins). 
In addition, bleeding from ulcersor vessels can be treated by a number of endoscopic techniques.

Recent studies have shown the usefulness of endoscopic removal of early tumors of the esophagus or stomach. This isdone either with injection of certain materials (like alcohol), or with the use of instruments 
(like lasers) that burn the tumor.Other techniques combining medications and lasers also show promise.

Colonoscopy

What is Colonoscopy?
Colonoscopy is a procedure that enables an examiner (usually a gastroenterologist) to evaluate the inside of the colon (large intestine or large bowel). The colonoscope is a four-foot long, flexible tube about the thickness of a finger with a camera and a source of light at its tip. The tip of the colonoscope is inserted into the anus and then is advanced slowly, under visual control, into the rectum and through the colon usually as far as the cecum, which is the first part of the colon.


Why is colonoscopy done?

Colonoscopy may be done for a variety of reasons. The vast majority of colonoscopies are performed as part of screening programs for colon cancer. When done for other reasons, it is most often done to investigate the cause of blood in the stoolabdominal paindiarrhea, a change in bowel habit, or an abnormality found on colonic X-rays or a computerized axial tomography (CT) scan.

Individuals with a previous history of polyps or colon cancer and certain individuals with a family history of some types of non-colonic cancers or colonic problems that may be associated with colon cancer (such as ulcerative colitis and colonic polyps) may be advised to have periodic colonoscopies because their risks are greater for polyps or colon cancer.

How often should one undergo colonoscopy depends on the degree of the risk and the abnormalities found at previous colonoscopies. One widely accepted recommendation has been that even healthy people at normal risk for colon cancer should undergo colonoscopy at age 50 and every 10 years thereafter, for the purpose of removing colonic polyps before they become cancerous.